This page recounts the history of the Navonian territories and those that have been under Navonian control at a certain moment in time. The history of Navonia starts in the sixteenth century with the first settlements in what later on would become Navonia. Navonia was established as a sovereign political entity in 1588 as the Navonian Kingdom. Noticeable episodes in Navonian history are the Civil War and the creation of the First Navonian Empire. A recurring theme is the conflict with the Selessians. The contemporary state that comprises all Navonian territories, the Republic of Navonia, was founded in 1922.
Colonial era[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Colonial Province of Navonia.
Navonia was colonized by English settlers during the sixteenth century. The earliest accounts of human presence in the area date back as far as 1546. At first the settlers where private investors that wanted to make a new start, fleeing religious and political prosecution in Europe. Soon however the current region of Navonia was submitted to the English crown. From 1557 the Colonial Province of Navonia was ruled by governors. The colonial administration had a good relationship with a colony of German settlers north of Navonia, with whom crops and other valuable goods were traded on a regular basis. By 1582, the crown was no longer interested in its colony. Other more lucrative investments had attracted the attention. The last governor of Navonia, John Deston, was granted the right to use the lands according to his likings. Deston created the region of Pargoth and gifted it to his unlawful son Roderick Began. Deston remained in charge over the rest of the territory under the self-given title of high governor until his death in 1588. It was then that his legal son, Charles Deston, made himself the first King of Navonia.
Monarchial era[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Navonian Kingdom.
Charles Deston, since his coronation in 1588 known as Charles I, was the first king in the House of Deston. Charles I was proud of his bond to the former governorship and based his rule on the declaration that the last governor could use the land according to his likings. His father had privatized the former colony and thus Charles became the rightful owner upon his fathers death. To avoid tensions with his half brother Roderick Began, Kings Charles granted him the title of Duke of Pargoth. King Charles ruled until 1612 and was succeeded by his son Charles II. Charles II died childless in 1655, leaving the country without an heir to the throne. The Duke of Pargoth, who was unofficially related to the House of Deston, decided to mary the widowed Queen Isabella. He was crowned king as Roderick I. From then on, Navonia was ruled by the House of Pargoth. Under the House of Pargoth the Navonian Kingdom was expanded significantly. Roderick I incorporated the Duchy of Pargoth into the Navonian Kingdom and also bought the current region of Massovia from the Saxonites, descendants from the German colonists. His son Roderick II, who assumed kingship in 1672, claimed the largely unsettled Ostland. He also forced the Sudetian communities in the Harbin area and the provinces of Higher Elyses and Western Peaks to pay tribute to his kingdom. Roderick II is nicknamed 'the Sudete-slayer' due to his responsibility in the Harbin Massacre. A third major expansion was made under Charles III, who married Elisabeth of Saxony to create a personal union over Navonia and New-Saxony. He added Massovia to New-Saxony and also occupied Lower-Selessia.
The death of Charles III in 1722 marked the start of the Navonian Civil War. Though the conflict is referred to as a civil war, it was in fact a three party territorial conflict: Edward of Saxony was the heir-by-adoption of both thrones, but the Navonian nobles refused to let the throne be occupied by a Saxonite. They wanted to install the Duke of Pargoth as the new king and submit New Saxony entirely. Queen Elisabeth held on to the New-Saxon throne and the territories granted by Charles III. When she died in 1924, Edward I of Saxony tried to conquer the Navonian throne but failed miserably. A truce was made resulting in the Treaty of Pargoth in 1731. The treaty recognized Charles IV, former Duke of Pargoth, as first king in the House of Roses. Massovia and Lower-Selessia where also annexed by the Navonian crown. New-Saxony remained sovereign as a Duchy but had to pay tribute. Edward of Saxony was unhappy with the outcome of the treaty and made contact with the Selessian House of Murcia. Umberto of Murcia, the Selessian ruler, wanted to provide Edward of Saxony with an army if Lower-Selessia would be returned and Sellesia was granted compensations in Ostland and the tributary of Harbin. In 1734 Charles IV was murdered as part of the conspiracy set up by Edward of Saxony. The king was succeeded by his brother, Charles V, who brutally invaded New Saxony and annihilated the House of Saxony and all who had pledged allegiance to it. In the mean time the Selessian army had crossed the border into Ostland under a vague claim of tributary payments. Umberto of Mercia had become terrified of what the Navonian reaction might be if they found out about the conspiracy. After he received the Letter to Murcia, he ordered his troops to move beyond Ostland and into the heart of the Navonian Kingdom. By the end of 1735, the Selessian army had conquered all of Navonia. However the army commander, prince Edward of Murcia and son of Edward I, stroke a deal with the Navonian nobility. They offered him the Navonian throne in return of overthrowing his own father. The Selessian army turned round and attacked its homeland. Since most Selessian resources were put into the Grand Army, Selessia was practically defenseless.
The civil war ended in 1736, but instead of making himself king Edward created the Murcian Commonwealth with the territories of Selessia, Greater New Saxony, Navonia and Harbin. For the first time, all current Navonian territories were comprised into a single political entity. Edward of Murcia declared himself 'Grand Protector' and united his people by force. The Commonwealth ceased to exist when Edward of Murcia died in 1752. His son was only five years old so the Navonian nobility saw a chance to restore the monarchy. They made an agreement with the Selessian upper class, who suffered greatly under Edward's rule, to put a neutral figure in charge. It was so that Francis I from the House of Massovia became king of the Navonian-Selessian Dual Monarchy. In 1769 he was succeeded by his son, Francis II, who is best known for his presence at the Elyses City Consultation. In this meeting he enforced a reopening of the Sudetian confines by stationing troops at the border until a treaty was signed.
Imperial era[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Navonian Empire.
The House of Massovia proved to be not only neutral but also weak figures. During their rule plundering and plotting where very common and hardly ever punished. The lack of unity drove the new upper classes, who made their fortune in trade rather than by inheriting it, to create a joint private army to conquer the throne. King Francis II didn't resist at all and simply stood down. The bourgeoisie appointed William of Murcia, the grandson of Edward the Conquerer as ruler of the newly erected Navonian Empire. In 1822, Emperor William I was succeeded by his nephew Edward II without any trouble. The emperors restored order by use of their standing Imperial Army. The next two emperors, Alexander I and Alexander II, ruled only for four years due to their old age. In 1844 Alexander III was responsible for the modernisation of the Navonian economy and the construction of railroads. He also agreed on the formation of an elected government and granted the people constitutional rights. This marked the beginning of the Second Navonian Empire. In 1866 Gregory I rose to the throne. He oppressed the growing dissatisfaction in the lower ranks of society. The common people protested because they didn't share in the newly created wealth. Gregory I responded by raising military and police spending and limiting press freedom. As protest became more harsh and violent, the government expressed its sorrows concerning the 'outdated methods' used by the emperor. The emperor simply fired the 'inflammatory secretaries' and assumed their tasks himself until further notice. The just fired secretary for social affairs, Mike Davidson, called the people to 'come out on the streets and show their emperor how many people need his kindness'. Gregory I saw this as treason and had Davidson executed. An uprising break out and the Imperial Government replaced the emperor by his uncle, Gregory II. The new emperor was much kinder and announced he would restore the liberties his predecessor had taken away.
Pressure from the bourgeoisie had already transformed the autocratic regime significantly, but it were the demands of the commoners that called the empire into question. Ideas of general suffrage and social justice gained terrain pretty fast. By 1918 strikes for higher payment were organized nationwide and in August of that year a march on the Imperial Palace was held. Emperor Gregory II promised reforms to calm the masses. He erected the Navonian parliament and appointed representatives in preparation of a new constitution. The appointed parliament counted four factions: the liberal Reform Party, the left-wing Radical Party, the National Party and a conservative faction. Parliament was preparing the new constitution when Gregory II got assassinated on October 6 1920 by Gustav Franzen, an anarcho-liberal and Selessian nationalist. The exact motive of Franzen remained unclear, but the circumstances indicated that he wanted to avoid a stronger legitimacy of the emperor's rule in the Selessian provinces.
[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Republic of Navonia.
With the death of emperor Gregory II, the conservative elite and some generals saw a chance to revert the promised freedoms which they deemed to radical. They profited from the disarray caused by the emperor's death and staged a reactionary coup in November 1920. The coup was answered by street violence and major uproar by the common people who held on to the emperor's promises. As it became clear the people where supported by a majority of the army regulars, the coup stagers returned on their steps out of fear for a civil war. In January 1921 the first election with general suffrage was held, with more than a year of delay. The parties that participated in the 1921 elections corresponded with the factions of the appointed parliament. It where the Radical Party and National Party that won a majority of seats. Both parties merged into the Unity Party. Government policy was opposed by the conservatives, who sought to restore the Empire, and the Reform Party. Under the Unity Party the new constitution was approved on March 2, 1921. For the formal creation of a republic, the government got support of the Reform Party, the Conservatives opposed. The country was lead by High Representative Thomas Ederling who lead the country towards more unity and freedom but did impose strict control on education and political activity. With the global recession of 1929 and growing international tension, the government turned the country inwards and tightened its control of the economy. In spite of his dictatorial style of governing Ederling managed to maintain his party's popularity, realizing marginal gains in the elections of 1926 and 1931. It where the conservatives who suffered most from this success.
In the 1936 elections the conservatives gained a lot of votes due to the international climate. The newly established and fascist-like Union of the Right also scored well. The Unity Party and the Reform Party formed a front against the growing forces of conservatives and extreme-rightists. The Reform Party agreed to this under the condition that more economic freedom would be given, but no actual measures where taken. Because the Second World War had broken out, the 1941 elections were cancelled. To 'maintain the necessary stability' the Conservative Party was forced to enter a government of national unity. Additionally, the Union of the Right got banned. Due to its attitude during the wartime, the Reform Party had to face bad results in 1946. It modernized its viewpoints, elected a new leadership and renamed itself to the Reform and Liberty Party (RLP). In the meantime the UP/CP government coalition enacted a pragmatic policy and stayed in power due to harassment practices. Some conservative politicians were uneasy with the growing dependency the Conservative Party was showing and so they split the party. Many popular conservatives moved to the liberal opposition. Election polls predicted a major victory for the RLP. Ederling however managed to pass a new voting law that would make representatives appointed nationwide instead of by province. Due to the new regulation, only 14 RLP-members got elected. The liberal region of Upper-Selessia was upset and threats of secession where made. The government, still the UP/CP coalition, raised pressure on the rebellious region and forced the RLP to distance itself from Selessian nationalism. The harsh measures and culture of oppression caused some friction within the Unity Party though. Its leadership decided to modernize and appointed Robert Guttman as new High Representative in 1961. Robert Guttman proved to be a weak figure. The good image of the UP was fading and the government was incapable of coping with the economic crisis of the 70's. In the election of 1981, new parties like the Progressive Party and the Democratic Union made their appearance. Together with the RLP, the new parties were good for 52 percent of the votes. A RLP/DU/PP government was established, but it soon fell over the question of how to counter the economic setback. The Progressive Party was dropped on exchange for the Conservative Party.
The new government carried out a harsh liberal policy that later on backfired to the governments popularity. The Unity Party and the Progressive Party merged into the Political Union of Leftists and Progressives (PULP), which defends a leftist economic policy. In the 1986 election the government coalition was severely punished for its economic measures. No government could be formed for a while until the Conservative Party agreed to support a RLP/DU minority cabinet from the opposition. This move only postponed the progressive victory which came about in the 1991 election. PULP got 48% percent of the votes and took up the Democratic Union in a government coalition. Yuri Regalio became the new High Representative and together with the coalition remained in power until today.